Sunday, 15 October 2017

The role and not powers of United Nations Secretary General?

So therefore

Article 97 of the United Nations Charter, states "The Secretary-General shall be appointed by the General Assembly upon the recommendation of the Security Council". As a result, the selection is subject to the veto of any of the five permanent members of the Security Council.qual parts diplomat and advocate, civil servant and CEO, the Secretary-General is a symbol of United Nations ideals and a spokesman for the interests of the world's peoples, in particular the poor and vulnerable among them. The current Secretary-General, and the ninth occupant of the post, is Mr. António Guterres of Portugal, who took office on 1 January 2017. 

The power and not the role 
The Charter describes the Secretary-General as "chief administrative officer" of the Organization, who shall act in that capacity and perform "such other functions as are entrusted" to him or her by the Security Council, General Assembly, Economic and Social Council and other United Nations organs. The Charter also empowers the Secretary-General to "bring to the attention of the Security Council any matter which in his opinion may threaten the maintenance of international peace and security". These guidelines both define the powers of the office and grant it considerable scope for action. The Secretary-General would fail if he did not take careful account of the concerns of Member States, but he must also uphold the values and moral authority of the United Nations, and speak and act for peace, even at the risk, from time to time, of challenging or disagreeing with those same Member States.Image result for pictures of kofi annan, bank moon and guterres

That creative tension accompanies the Secretary-General through day-to-day work that includes attendance at sessions of United Nations bodies; consultations with world leaders, government officials, and others; and worldwide travel intended to keep him in touch with the peoples of the Organization's Member States and informed about the vast array of issues of international concern that are on the Organization's agenda. Each year, the Secretary-General issues a report on the work of the United Nations that appraises its activities and outlines future priorities. The Secretary-General is also Chairman of the United Nations System Chief Executives Board for Coordination (CEB), which brings together the Executive Heads of all UN funds, programmes and specialized agencies twice a year in order to further coordination and cooperation in the entire range of substantive and management issues facing the United Nations System.
One of the most vital roles played by the Secretary-General is the use of his "good offices" -- steps taken publicly and in private, drawing upon his independence, impartiality and integrity, to prevent international disputes from arising, escalating or spreading.
Each Secretary-General also defines his role within the context of his particular time in office.

List of Secretaries-General



PortraitSecretary-General
(Born–Died)
Dates in officeCountry of originUN Regional GroupReason of withdrawalRef.
Sr. Gladwyn Jebb.jpgGladwyn Jebb
(1900–1996)
24 October 1945 –
1 February 1946
 United KingdomWestern European & OthersServed as Acting Secretary-General until Lie's election.[12]
After World War II, he served as Executive Secretary of the Preparatory Commission of the United Nations in August 1945, being appointed Acting United Nations Secretary-General from October 1945 to February 1946 until the appointment of the first Secretary-General, Trygve Lie.
1
Trygve Lie.jpgTrygve Lie
(1896–1968)
Trygve Lie Signature.svg
2 February 1946 –
10 November 1952
 NorwayWestern European & OthersResigned.[13]
Lie, a foreign minister and former labour leader, was recommended by the Soviet Union to fill the post. After the UN involvement in the Korean War, the Soviet Union vetoed Lie's reappointment in 1951. The United States circumvented the Soviet Union's veto and recommended reappointment directly to the General Assembly. Lie was reappointed by a vote of 46 to 5, with eight abstentions. The Soviet Union remained hostile to Lie, and he resigned in 1952.[14]
2
Dag Hammarskjöld.jpgDag Hammarskjöld
(1905–1961)
Sign Dag Hammarskjold.png
10 April 1953 –
18 September 1961
 SwedenWestern European & OthersDied in a plane crash in Northern Rhodesia (now Zambia), while on a peacekeeping mission to the Congo.[15]
After a series of candidates were vetoed, Hammarskjöld emerged as an option that was acceptable to the Security Council. He was re-elected unanimously to a second term in 1957. The Soviet Union was angered by Hammarskjöld's leadership of the UN during the Congo Crisis, and suggested that the position of Secretary-General be replaced by a troika, or three-man executive. Facing great opposition from the Western nations, the Soviet Union gave up on its suggestion. Hammarskjöld was killed in a plane crash in Northern Rhodesia (now Zambia) in 1961.[14] U.S. President John F. Kennedy called Hammarskjöld "the greatest statesman of our century".[16]
3
U Thant at UN press conference.PNGU Thant
(1909–1974)
U Thant Signature.svg
30 November 1961 –
31 December 1971
 BurmaAsia-PacificDeclined to stand for a third election.[17]
In the process of replacing Hammarskjöld, the developing world insisted on a non-European and non-American Secretary-General. U Thant was nominated. However, due to opposition from the French (Thant had chaired a committee on Algerian independence) and the Arabs (Burma supported Israel), Thant was only appointed for the remainder of Hammarskjöld's term. He was the first Asian Secretary-General. The following year, on 30 November, Thant was unanimously re-elected to a new term ending on 3 November 1966. He was re-elected on 2 December 1966, finally for a full 5-year term, ending on 31 December 1971. Thant did not seek a third election.[14]
4
Bundesarchiv Bild 183-M0921-014, Beglaubigungsschreiben DDR-Vertreter in UNO new.pngKurt Waldheim
(1918–2007)
Kurt Waldheim Signature.svg
1 January 1972 –
31 December 1981
 AustriaWestern European & OthersChina vetoed his third term.[18]
Waldheim launched a discreet but effective campaign to become the Secretary-General. Despite initial vetoes from China and the United Kingdom, in the third round, Waldheim was selected to become the new Secretary-General. In 1976, China initially blocked Waldheim's re-election, but it relented on the second ballot. In 1981, Waldheim's re-election for a third term was blocked by China, which vetoed his selection through 15 rounds. From 1986 to 1992, Waldheim served as President of Austria, making him the first head of state to rise to the position of Secretary-General of the United Nations[19]. In 1985, it was revealed that a post–World War II UN War Crimes Commission had labeled Waldheim as a suspected war criminal – based on his involvement with the army of Nazi Germany. The files had been stored in the UN archive.[14]
5
Javier Pérez de Cuéllar (1982).jpgJavier Pérez de Cuéllar
(born 1920)
Javier Pérez de Cuéllar (firma).jpg
1 January 1982 –
31 December 1991
 PeruLatin American & CaribbeanDid not stand for a third term.[20]
Pérez de Cuéllar was selected after a five-week deadlock between the re-election of Waldheim and China's candidate, Salim Ahmed Salim of Tanzania. Pérez de Cuéllar, a Peruvian diplomat who a decade earlier had served as President of the UN Security Council during his time as Peruvian Ambassador to the UN, was a compromise candidate, and became the first and thus far only Secretary-General from the Americas. He was re-elected unanimously in 1986.[14]
6
Boutros Boutros-Ghali (1980).jpgBoutros Boutros-Ghali
(1922–2016)
Signature of Boutros Boutros-Ghali.svg
1 January 1992 –
31 December 1996
 EgyptAfricanThe United States vetoed his second term.[21]
The 102-member Non-Aligned Movement insisted that the next Secretary-General come from Africa. With a majority in the General Assembly and the support of China, the Non-Aligned Movement had the votes necessary to block any unfavourable candidate. The Security Council conducted five anonymous straw polls—a first for the council—and Boutros-Ghali emerged with 11 votes on the fifth round. In 1996, the United States vetoed the re-appointment of Boutros-Ghali, claiming he had failed in implementing necessary reforms to the UN.[14]
7
Kofi Annan Portrait.JPGKofi Annan
(born 1938)
Kofi Annan signature.svg
1 January 1997 –
31 December 2006
 GhanaAfricanRetired after two full terms.[22]
On 13 December 1996, the Security Council recommended Annan.[23][24] He was confirmed four days later by the vote of the General Assembly.[25] He started his second term as Secretary-General on 1 January 2002.
8
Ban Ki-Moon Davos 2011 Cropped.jpgBan Ki-moon
(born 1944)
Ban Ki Moon Signature.svg
1 January 2007 –
31 December 2016
 South KoreaAsia-PacificRetired after two full terms.[26]
Ban became the first East Asian to be selected as the Secretary-General and the second Asian overall after U Thant. He was unanimously elected to a second term by the General Assembly on 21 June 2011. His second term began on 1 January 2012.[27] Prior to his selection, he was the Foreign Minister of South Korea from January 2004 to November 2006.
9
António Guterres November 2016.jpgAntónio Guterres
(born 1949)
Assinatura António Guterres.svg
1 January 2017 –
present
 PortugalWestern European & Others
Guterres is the second former head of government to become Secretary-General, and the first Secretary-General born after the establishment of the United Nations. He was Prime Minister of Portugal from 1995 to 2002. He has also been President of Socialist International (1999–2005) and United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (2005–2015).

Friday, 13 October 2017

Localizing the SDGs

On the occasion of the World Summit of Local and Regional Government, ahead of the Habitat III Conference , the Global Taskforce of Local and Regional Governments (GTF), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-Habitat) launched a website www.LocalizingTheSDGs.org – a pioneering knowledge and information sharing platform on the implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, a set of 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) universally agreed by world leaders in September 2015 in New York.

On locally led actions

“Local actors have a key role to play in translating the SDGs into reality and the platform will be a useful resource for them in this process”, said Barbara Pesce-Monteiro, Director of the UN and UNDP Office in Brussels. “To ensure that the SDGs contribute to a substantive improvement of people’s lives, sharing best practices as well as challenges is key”.

The platform provides concrete tools and practices for local policy makers, development practitioners and other relevant actors to support countries in the implementation and achievement of the Global Goals locally. Users can upload and share their experiences, tools, as well as engage in real-time discussions with all participating partners on the SDG localization. 

For instance, it includes: a Roadmap to localize the SDGs; the experience of the Government of Valencia, Spain in integrating the SDGs in its regional strategies and plans; a tool to collect data at the local level based on the Brazilian experience, and a guide developed by UNDP to support local governance in fragile and conflict affected settings.

The 2030 Agenda entirely embraces this local perspective underlining that “many of the investments to achieve the SDGs will take place at the sub-national level”. While there is the need to face critical challenges, many of them being global concerns with a strong local impact, local and regional governments are key to fulfilling the new development agenda. They have a critical role in setting priorities, executing plans, monitoring results and engaging with local businesses and communities.

#LocalizingSDGs 

Sunday, 8 October 2017

This Emergency will need you

Dear Esteem Partner,

We are so grateful to share our newsletter with you. It is our first edition and can only get better in future. We believe in social good and strongly believe you do.


Please have a read by clicking on this link now and share with friends -
http://cyplp.net.ng/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/Newsletter-sept-2017.pdf

We appreciate you.


Dennis Ekwere
Focal Person
For; CYPLP Team
Nigeria
www.cyplp.net.ng

#newsletter @GlobalEmergency #CYPLP 

Friday, 8 September 2017

Data on Rape of minor



                     DATA/RECORD OF REPORTED RAPE CASES FROM DECEMBER 2016 – JUNE 2017 IN KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA. A BI ANNUAL MONITORING REPORT OF RAPE CASES/VICTIMS  BY CYPLP.
YEAR  
MONTH
                 SEX
                                                               AGE
TOTAL















MALE
FEMALE
0-5 YEARS
6-10 YEARS
11-15 YEARS
16-20 YEARS
21-25 YEARS
26-30 YEARS
2016
DECEMBER
         0
        1
       _
    _
     1
     _
      _
      _
         1
2017
JANUARY
         0
         2
       1
     1
       _
       _ 
       _
      _
          2
2017
FEBUARY
         1
         5
        2
      2
     _
      1
      1
      _
         6
2017
MARCH
         1
          7
        2
       4
      _
       2
       _
      _
        8
2017
APRIL
        10
         4
        _
       3
       9
       2
      _
      _
       14
2017
MAY
         1
         6
        _
       1
        5
        _
       1
        _
        7
2017
JUNE
          0
           7
        1
        3
       2
        _
      _
         1
         7













Source – Salama SARC.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
DATA ANALYSIS-
Data are as collated from Salama - Sexual Assault Response Center, Kaduna State Nigeria.  And we have studied to recognize that there is increasing wave of rape of minors in Nigeria. From the record and time under review, there is no month a case of rape of minor is not recorded, no month a case of rape of a girl- child is not also recorded. The most frequently reported recorded cases are victims between 6-10 years old.  April 2017, recorded the highest number of reported cases where 10 boys between the ages of 6-15 years were raped by older men. 

From our findings, in every 1 reported case of rape of minor, are 10 unreported cases. Most unreported cases are from poor children used as house help or domestic servants by the rich.  They can’t speak up for fear and even if they will, do not know where and how to go about it. These set of victims are mostly raped by adult children of the family members they are recruited to work as domestic servants including the husband of the house. Other cases are stomach by parents of victims whether poor or rich, in attempt to protect the victim from trauma and tagged name-calling in future. 

There are clear indications that reported cases from this data are parents from poor background living in poor communities, who cannot afford medical bill for victims. And because “Salama Center” offers free counseling and medical treatment to victims of reported rape cases to the center, poor parents have a choice to make. 

However, most people are not aware of this center and will need some work in awareness creation. Victims are counseled and debrief of the rape experience at Salama Center. But there is no avenue to test the functionality of the debriefing and I ask. Therefore, there is no certainty if victim are living a traumatized life or not in future.

Stepping up the game 

Children and Young People Living for Peace; is not for profit youth focused voluntary organization in Kaduna State, Nigeria. They work with data and translate data to problem solve the future. They are passionate about children, and are against rape of minors in particular. They are making plans for a match to raise awareness among parents and guardians including the general public on rape and how to reduce children's vulnerability.  Visit them at www.cyplp.net.ng

Presently, they have written to the Attorney General of Nigeria to promulgate Rules to regulate Child Rights proceedings further to Section 161 of the Child Rights Act, 2003. All this is to tame rape too.

They also defend and monitor for proper prosecution of rape actors at law courts. Their research team is working on following up victims on documentation to determine if the counseling and debriefing by Salama Center works or not. And do interview rape actors to determine what drive them to rape minors. Their  research is on going and will be publishing its findings and report every two years of following up victim’s experience.