Friday, 17 November 2017

When Biro is mightier than bombs

It is rather so unfortunate that I found out that I am fighting a lonely war for justice all the time, when I realized what my fundamental human rights are. But fighting in defense for rights in my country has always been expensive for the poor that, seeking justice seems absolute waste of time.
Myself is a victim of rape of justice severally either that I couldn’t afford to pay for legal service for defense in the court of law or, as may seems - justice system itself was calling for money from me; which I could not afford. In such cases I have lost justice and justice denied. But I have never given up recalling or seeking for the full recovery all my lost justice on time, realizing that there’s  power in biro that is mightier than swords, guns and bombs.Image may contain: 3 people, people smiling
In reflection, is one of the reasons why there’s increasing wave of violence by vulnerable young people in Nigeria and in Africa; when justice for the poor is hard to get. When majority poor young Africans, are denied justice unjustifiably, they’ll turn around to seek redress through violence. I mean through swords, guns and bombs you see everywhere.  I tell you truth; where there is no justice, there wouldn’t be peace. Check it round, I wouldn’t lie.    
I have fought many battles, winning them all with the power biro since I discover it; is a testimony I feel like sharing with my readers, so they too can learn, share experience for scale up, connecting local voices with international best practices.  

How it all started-Image result for prison picture
In 2011, something happened. I had a little misunderstanding with my landlord on a house rent issue. He had increased the rent by 500% and he wanted me to pay for five years and I said no. So he locked up my apartment. I reported the case to the police and some policemen came with me to unlock the place for me to gain access. When we arrived, there was a sort of rift between the landlord and I and he threatened me with dogs; assaulted me in several ways. I decided to take a non-violent approach, so I wrote a petition to the Commissioner of Police and I sent it via a courier service. On getting my letter, I think he just made up his mind on how to counter that approach. As a well placed man in my State/Country, he also went to the Commissioner of Police and wrote a petition against me, saying that I tried to kidnap his son. There, the case turned against me because of my vulnerability.Image result for prison picture
Upon his compliant, I was arrested and detained for four days on the charge of attempted kidnap, I was denied access to lawyer, was never taken to court. When I was eventually released I was threatened through the apparatus of police to pack out from the house. I was embarrassed and so I went to court to exonerate myself and seek redress to breach of my rights. But looking for that infringed right was extremely difficult for me, as I couldn’t afford a lawyer and when I eventually got one, it was not that right to the task. So I lost the case, and my right gone with the wind.
And I realized that something needed to be done for others like me, whose rights are trampled every day, and who can’t afford a lawyer too. Just too rivers to cross, so, I decided something needed to be done fast  recognizing high number of people in awaiting trial in detention out of poverty.
While I was detained in a police cell, there I met young people ranging between 18 and 35 years of age. I interacted with them asking each of them what brought them into detention. One thing I noticed was that there is so many co-operations, love and oneness in the cell, which if replicated outside, the world will be a better place for us all. The inmates were so open to me. The crimes that brought them to prison include murder, rape, fighting and stealing, fraud, kidnapping among others.
In the course of our interaction, many confirmed to me that they participated in the crimes they were accused of. When I advised them to change for the better when they leave jail, they said they had no regrets; they were not remorseful. In fact some said that if they get out of jail, they would continue with crime. I tried talking to the 23 inmates then in the Police headquarters’ CID cell; only one of them promised to change when he regains his freedom. When I persisted, the others told me that it was too late to advice them because it will not make them to change their minds.
They also said stressed that if I have the passion to see a new and transformed Nigeria that is violence and crime free, I should deal more with children, saying that crime is a circle. That they themselves took over from others, people who introduced them to crime while they were young. 
Image result for prison picture
They insisted that, if I want to break the circle, I should go to the children and try to keep them off crime, that they on their part have already made up their mind and that I should leave them for another set of people to handle.
They asked me to mirror into the society that all the crimes they have committed are done in other ways. For instance one of them who were brought to prison on a rape charge said people in high positions have continued to rape the nation’s economy and other aspects of the life of the country and its people.
It was as the inmates talked to me about children that I reflected back on my passion and that gave birth to an organization I founded called- 
Children and Young People Living for Peace.

Stepping Stones
The peace I am talking about though is not the absence of war but peace of mind; how to create peace of mind for people – among spouses, at home, at school, at workplace and in and among communities among others. If we are able to do this, the larger peace that we are talking about will simply find its place.
So I concluded that my going to cell was never a setback but a stepping stone into doing well, into making a change. I am sure God allowed me go to cell so that I can get first hand information from the people involved in violence so as to do the work well. So when I came out from cell, I started dropping active involvement in advertising and public relations and became more focused on service above self. And I have no regret. I then met with other young people and share the passion with, and at which they bought they idea and became part of the team with many volunteers running the vision.
Recognizing what I went through, I currently work as a paralegal and provide means of empowerment by making access to justice to poorest poor women and youths. I also work to keep children and young people out of chains of radicalization and violent extremism by teaching peace at schools, including the teachers.
It is real that this work is challenging but more real is it that it is fulfilling. I feel it whenever I touch lives in small ways with greater impact. I get inspired to conceptualize local actions as solutions to problems. I am hopeful that peace is possible, and my team mates are superbly wonderful. Together we work more on researching local communities that have coexisted peacefully overtime, and then learn from them to tailor-apply in communities that are vulnerable to violence. This has been the secret of my local program successes over the years.
After that-
I began to search for deeper knowledge and best ways to defend my rights as vulnerable, and I went online. I was able to get materials to digest for insight and practical means of understanding where my rights starts and ends. Particularly, not to wait till rights are infringed but to act when they are about or threatened to be infringed. I also build synergies and networks with others in different countries for amplified voice. Thereafter, my story changed. I am not a lawyer only a barefoot- lawyer.
Listen to one of my real life Success Stories
Abubakar, male, student, 16 years, was arrested with two others and detained for 14 days in police cell on a case of homicide. The other two were released because they could afford bail. But Abubakar’s parents could not afford police bail fee neither a lawyer.  He was arraigned before the court and remanded in Juvenile remand home for adjournment. Abubakar was never brought back before the court and was abandoned for six months without trial in the remand home.    Image result for prison picture
Upon my visit to the remand home and after listening to his case, I pick up my biro and wrote a petition against the State Government for unfair hearing and wrongful detention of Abubakar for six months without trial to National Human Rights Commission, Nigeria.  Two days after, Abubakar was released and set free.
Things we often overlook could be the solution

If we are to reduced violence tendencies and occurrence in Africa by vulnerable young people, then we must begin to instill and teach them the power of biros. Teach them that biros can give us better results than swords, guns and bombs. Frame narratives around it and see if this will not give us the needed peace we are searching for so long!  I rest my case.     

Thursday, 16 November 2017


We launch our Smiles at Christmas appeal asking you to donate money and toys to put a smile on needy child’s faces this Xmas.    

We are asking you, our caring readers and supporters, to help put a smile back on needy children’s faces. Your gift can play positive and powerful music in kid's souls that you least could imagine. Small giving do change lives. We know. 

We know times are tough. But we’re asking you to give what you can — in money or toys, or both.

Help children who have lost a parent serving our country in the face of insurgency. Help children who are fighting cancer and other ailment in the hospital. Help kids who may not have what to eat on Xmas day, to at least to have a meal. Help kids who are victims of domestic violence and neglected to street. Show a child you don't even know some love. That little love can make them live and make the difference.

Our Smiles At Christmas campaign starts now and we are asking you to give what you can to us.

You can donate new or used toys in good condition, clothing and other materials your minds guides you to. By bringing it to us- @

Children and Young People Living for Peace Initiative,
E4 Kano Road, 2nd floor Rm 2, NASARA PLAZA, Kaduna, Nigeria.

Or you can give cash @


ACCOUNT NUMBER- 206 822 1009
SWIFT CODE – UNAFNGLA. ( For international transfer only).

Please help us share and spread this message.
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Thank you.

Sunday, 12 November 2017

Genesis and management of Nigeria's social problem.

On September 12, 2013 I wrote about this in one of the National Newspapers in Nigeria- Daily Trust Newspaper. And I am today reminiscing on it ............

It has been proven time and time again that it is extremely difficult to disarm young people that were armed during at conflict situations
.Image result for genesis of nigeria' social security problem pictures

This is simply because once these young minds are “mental” that overpowering perceived enemy is easily achievable through the use of alternative measures like sticks, knives, rods, guns, etc. They will do everything possible to remain like so. They wish to be as a macho man. This young people are always bigger burden to those who armed them when the dust of conflict settles. Yet it is on record that these armed youths in the absent of conflict do use these tools of weapon against those that armed them in the first place, and most time those who armed them are the elected, making it real of a story when bush meat hunt the hunter. In this case, Civilian JTF in Borno State may not be an exception, no matter how mild they may look. They can become monster in future if you watched and did nothing.

In retrospect, in 1952, when Prof  Wole Soyinka of the university college (now university of Ibadan )led the big seven alongside ; Puis Oleghe, Ralph Opara, Frank Aig-Imokhuede, Ifoghale Amata, Oye-lola, and Awe to form “THE PYRATES” confraternity (PC). This group in the beginning was formed due to some societal ills and conformist degradation which were exhibited not only by students but by the society at large according to Dr TunjiTubi, a onetime national capon of the Pirates confraternity. The ideals were lofty as it strived to change the society. But in the mid-70s the pyrate exploded when a member was black-spotted and expelled. The expelled member, aggrieved, left to form a parallel confraternity called “the Buccaneers” claiming that he was unfairly treated by members of the former.
It is there for record that the founder of the “Buccaneers” later became provost of one of the nation college of education.

Then the two groups started having confrontation which snowballed into violent clashes where sticks, rods, knives, guns, were used against one another for supremacy. Members in attempts to stay safe started arming up self for defence and as time goes on, different groups emerged as break away. This includes – the Vikings, Black Axe, Red Berets, Eiye, Mafia etc. You will agree with me that as at today, campus confraternity or as you may call, secret cult in our tertiary schools has caused unimaginable catastrophes to extent that the original ideal of its formation has lost taste and test. 
The politicians are good at exploring and exploiting them as political thugs to rig election into office. These groups are armed to teeth by politicians and are promised juicy things before elections as motivation to maim kill and destroy opponent but only to be dumped after election and or when the politician is sworn into office. Normally, the first thing the elected politician want to do once sworn in, is to look for  ways to disarm these groups knowing full well that they will not be able to fulfil the promises. Then they would use the apparatus of the police force against the group and usually the centre will explode and the explosion is manifested in assassination, kidnapping, armed robbery, bombing etc.
So do our leaders know the perpetrators of these violence crimes in Nigeria? Yes they do and do pretend not to know.  If not, let see what every election birth in Nigeria.
Every post presi-dential election in Nigeria has always birthed a monster of security challenges. In the aftermath of 1979 presidential election won by Alhaji Shehu Shagari, it birthed arm robbery of the highest order led by the Lawrence Anini group. In 1999 post-presidential election of Obasanjo, Bakassi Boys, OPC were birthed. In 2007 election of late Yar’dua, militancy in the Niger Delta took a fearsome dimension. In 2011 election of President Goodluck Jonathan, the Ombatse cult and Boko Haram insurgency became more pronounced. Who knows what 2015 post-presidential election would bring?  One can only but discern. 

It is then worrisome considering the kind and nature of babies birthed out of every presidential election in Nigeria. It is a call for our security agencies to have a rethink of going for pre antenatal; for virtually all violence crimes in Nigeria have mute political one. But the police seem snail at combating violence crime with its obsolete strategies of “Oga at the top” syndrome. If one will ask, what is the role of civilian vigilante JTF group in the north east of Nigeria? If not; to die innocently and ignorantly. 
Why would a responsible government be quiet to push out civilians to fight insurgence the police could not handle? This is a miscarriage and I see the vigilante Civilian JTF beginning to fortify themselves beyond sticks and rods, for guns as they are continually hunt for suspected Boko Haram members. The question is who will buy those guns? May be we will know when the dust settles in the region and at that time, when attempt to disarm them begins.Of course as usual, the centre will explode and who can tell what will happen? May be that would be after the 2015 presidential election.

Saturday, 11 November 2017


There is no justification whatsoever, when citizens begin to take arms against its nation and fellow citizens by any guise. But this is our story in the Northeast of Nigeria of Borno State aka “Home of peace”- where peace is difficult to find this days.

In the Northeast of Nigeria, over 20,000 lives has been lost, over 2.3 million people displaced, children orphaned, women widowed and many more unidentified number maimed, while properties worth millions are destroyed and human trust derailed totally till then. This is bitter one, with a state that was known to be so peaceful until politic mix with religion, when things fall apart.

There was a group of young people who came together to fight a cause for the establishment of a new religious order with the aim of routing away corruption in Nigeria. That group was founded in Borno state with capital in Maiduguri; a cosmopolitan city. What has become of this group is mind blowing  as date.

Boko Haram is a group of young people founded by Mohammed Yusuf, popularly referred as “the leader of young people” in some circles. Mohammed was a cleric that preached and attracted poor uneducated and unemployed youths in poor communities within the Northeast of Nigeria.  His style of preaching was targeted at reaching out to most neglected groups and vulnerable youths in communities, which made it possible for grass root penetration of his message and attracted easy traffic flow of followership. His message was how to change society using religion as a tool for a take over of Nigeria’s leadership. This was and is still the drive behind the group. This message was new and igniting, and spurred hope into the minds of vulnerable youths who had hitherto craved for identity and class in the society to no avail. That message of hope is the driving force for new recruitment of young people into the group till date.

“Yan Yusufiyya” was their name when the group was formed and not Boko Haram. Boko Haram is a name given to the group by the media. The group existed for a long time and was peaceful. Though popular at grass root, the popularity became a threat to politicians in Borno State. Meanwhile other politicians saw the popularity of the group as opportunity to launch their political ambition, and so started aligning with the group in attempt to mobilize grass root support into political power. But that was just a monster of security problems in incubation.

When Mixing the two is dangerous
That is when we mix religion with politics. It will always birth violence of war and nothing less.  Anyhow, I will prefer to be more specific in making my presentation. That it was in the build up for 2003 election year that the group was brought into politics. The group on it own saw their coming into politics as Clear Avenue to actualize their mission of taking over Government from Borno State to the Nation. From the group’s preaching perspective, that was window for them to launch into politics, and this political presumption made many vulnerable youths who never joined the group to believe the group sovereignty and join them.

The group entered into terms of agreement with politicians who were interested in leveraging their platform to reach out to grass root members. The crux of the agreement was; should the group give support to any politician, and peradventure the politician wins the election into Borno State Government House, then the state will be ruled religiously according to the groups’ tenet and belief.

To beat your imagination, the aspirant/politician the group supported won the election and was sworn in as Borno State Governor for 2003-2007 tenure. The politicians before now had armed this group to teeth as foot soldiers to fight opposition before and during the election. Unfortunately after the election, the politicians never disarmed the group!   However, to straighten the agreement that was entered, the group was rewarded with a commissioner-ship slot in the Government House.  But the group wanted full scale implementation of the agreement and not just political appointment. The group then started asking for more from the Governor: to translate the agreement they entered into prior 2003 into reality. But that so sad the agreement became unattainable.  
In the build up to 2007 election year, the then sitting Government's interest was to re-contest the election, and the group was drafted in again with a renewed terms of agreement for full implementation of the first agreement should they scale through the second term.  After the election, the Government won the election for second tenure which spanned 2007-2011. And between this tenure, was when the group went haywire and violent?  A once peaceful group eventually snowballed in terrorist group, why? Because Government realizes the impossibilities of translating the terms of agreement they re-entered with the group the second time into reality. The group got disappointing.  

In attempt to weaken the group, Government instead of dialogue, set up a special joint police force and military anti- robbery squad called “Operation Flush” to flush out the groups they armed before election. Then, Operation Flush started arbitrary arrest and detention of the group and other civilian in attempt to weaken the group, knowing fully well the extent they had armed the group. It is on record that from 2007 the group had several confrontation and misunderstanding with Government although violent was not recorded.

But in 2009 the group got tired and revolted by announcing refusal to recognize the State Government authority.  They then declare their “state of authority” and castigated the Government as being insensitive, greedy and corrupt. That, Government only used the poor politically to achieve their selfish goals and dump them to deeper poverty because of their vulnerability. The group viewed the action of Government as a renege to the agreement. They term the renege as“THE EDUCATED RICH, using THE UNEDUCATED POOR” for selfish reasons. That, the poor uneducated ones must resist and say - "NO" to the educated rich antics in all ramification. That was how the name of the group came into fruition by the media as BOKO HARAM.

BOKO is a Hausa language and means “Western Education”.  
Haram is Arabic language and means “No”. 

So, Boko Haram simply means – No to western education. What that mean is that, it is western education that has makes the elites to enslave the poor uneducated and should be resisted and claim  such as no fit.

The Explosion Started
On Thursday 11 June 2009, a detachment of Operation Flush near the Custom market in Maiduguri intercepted this group; who were in funeral procession of its member and were asked why they rode on motorcycles without wearing crash helmet. The group saw the challenge as disregard for their mournful situation and in no time engaged in hot argument with the operation Flush.  In the midst of hot argument, an armed member of the Operation Flush opened fire on 17 members of the group and injured many more, whom were admitted at the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital. After that incident, there was no reaction from Government on the bloody shoot out and the group regarded it as affront and deliberate to exterminate them.    
Few days later, the founder of the group (now late- Mohammed Abubakar- killed by police) issued a statement that, the action of Borno State Government not condemning the shooting nor empathized with them, and has not set up panel of inquiry into the shooting is a clear indication that the shooting was orchestrated with the aim of eliminating his followers. And boldly promised reprisal as justice.  He called his followers to dust up their arms in preparedness for self defense and eventual Jihad to the shooting of 17 followers.

On Sunday 26th July 2009 at about 10pm, the group retaliated by disabling all GSM networks in Maiduguri and struck different police stations and residents of police officers killing in revenge.  In  counter, Federal Government immediately stepped in and mobilized military force into Maiduguri  then launched back on the group members whose houses were brought down and burnt. The   approach was an eye for eye, which has gotten all blind.

From 2010, the group started using motor bikes to assassinate policemen at check points at duty posts. Then, they started killing soldiers too. Government workers, politicians, communities members were later joined in. Reason being that, they are the ones that allegedly pin point group members to security for arrest and killing.

As at date, it is rather unfortunate how the whole episode has played and is playing out between the group and Government, and how we couldn't manage the conflict till it became crisis and now a monster. The world did not really know of the group till when the group kidnapped 276 schools girls at Chibok. Then the internationally media like CNN, Aljeezera etc beamed their light for news headlines.

But the group had existed for years. To my mind is baffling, how this group has gone to become the world deadliest terror group by global terrorism index 2015. Leaving one to wondered why?

Why is this happening in Nigeria this long so long. How we are using hardware technique of militarization to solve all our problems. How the technique is always giving us steady and sustainable problem to handle. And why we wouldn't learn about software technique is solving social issues.

Let pray for Nigeria so peace will prevail. Peace to Nigeria. 

#BokoHaram #PVE #CVE #Terrorism #News #insurgency #nigeria 

Sunday, 5 November 2017

November Newsletter is here

Dear Special One,

It is a privilege for us to know you.

We share with you our November 2017 newsletter.

Enjoy your read and share with your networks here by clicking below link please - 

Thank you.

Sunday, 15 October 2017

The role and not powers of United Nations Secretary General?

So therefore

Article 97 of the United Nations Charter, states "The Secretary-General shall be appointed by the General Assembly upon the recommendation of the Security Council". As a result, the selection is subject to the veto of any of the five permanent members of the Security Council.qual parts diplomat and advocate, civil servant and CEO, the Secretary-General is a symbol of United Nations ideals and a spokesman for the interests of the world's peoples, in particular the poor and vulnerable among them. The current Secretary-General, and the ninth occupant of the post, is Mr. António Guterres of Portugal, who took office on 1 January 2017. 

The power and not the role 
The Charter describes the Secretary-General as "chief administrative officer" of the Organization, who shall act in that capacity and perform "such other functions as are entrusted" to him or her by the Security Council, General Assembly, Economic and Social Council and other United Nations organs. The Charter also empowers the Secretary-General to "bring to the attention of the Security Council any matter which in his opinion may threaten the maintenance of international peace and security". These guidelines both define the powers of the office and grant it considerable scope for action. The Secretary-General would fail if he did not take careful account of the concerns of Member States, but he must also uphold the values and moral authority of the United Nations, and speak and act for peace, even at the risk, from time to time, of challenging or disagreeing with those same Member States.Image result for pictures of kofi annan, bank moon and guterres

That creative tension accompanies the Secretary-General through day-to-day work that includes attendance at sessions of United Nations bodies; consultations with world leaders, government officials, and others; and worldwide travel intended to keep him in touch with the peoples of the Organization's Member States and informed about the vast array of issues of international concern that are on the Organization's agenda. Each year, the Secretary-General issues a report on the work of the United Nations that appraises its activities and outlines future priorities. The Secretary-General is also Chairman of the United Nations System Chief Executives Board for Coordination (CEB), which brings together the Executive Heads of all UN funds, programmes and specialized agencies twice a year in order to further coordination and cooperation in the entire range of substantive and management issues facing the United Nations System.
One of the most vital roles played by the Secretary-General is the use of his "good offices" -- steps taken publicly and in private, drawing upon his independence, impartiality and integrity, to prevent international disputes from arising, escalating or spreading.
Each Secretary-General also defines his role within the context of his particular time in office.

List of Secretaries-General

Dates in officeCountry of originUN Regional GroupReason of withdrawalRef.
Sr. Gladwyn Jebb.jpgGladwyn Jebb
24 October 1945 –
1 February 1946
 United KingdomWestern European & OthersServed as Acting Secretary-General until Lie's election.[12]
After World War II, he served as Executive Secretary of the Preparatory Commission of the United Nations in August 1945, being appointed Acting United Nations Secretary-General from October 1945 to February 1946 until the appointment of the first Secretary-General, Trygve Lie.
Trygve Lie.jpgTrygve Lie
Trygve Lie Signature.svg
2 February 1946 –
10 November 1952
 NorwayWestern European & OthersResigned.[13]
Lie, a foreign minister and former labour leader, was recommended by the Soviet Union to fill the post. After the UN involvement in the Korean War, the Soviet Union vetoed Lie's reappointment in 1951. The United States circumvented the Soviet Union's veto and recommended reappointment directly to the General Assembly. Lie was reappointed by a vote of 46 to 5, with eight abstentions. The Soviet Union remained hostile to Lie, and he resigned in 1952.[14]
Dag Hammarskjöld.jpgDag Hammarskjöld
Sign Dag Hammarskjold.png
10 April 1953 –
18 September 1961
 SwedenWestern European & OthersDied in a plane crash in Northern Rhodesia (now Zambia), while on a peacekeeping mission to the Congo.[15]
After a series of candidates were vetoed, Hammarskjöld emerged as an option that was acceptable to the Security Council. He was re-elected unanimously to a second term in 1957. The Soviet Union was angered by Hammarskjöld's leadership of the UN during the Congo Crisis, and suggested that the position of Secretary-General be replaced by a troika, or three-man executive. Facing great opposition from the Western nations, the Soviet Union gave up on its suggestion. Hammarskjöld was killed in a plane crash in Northern Rhodesia (now Zambia) in 1961.[14] U.S. President John F. Kennedy called Hammarskjöld "the greatest statesman of our century".[16]
U Thant at UN press conference.PNGU Thant
U Thant Signature.svg
30 November 1961 –
31 December 1971
 BurmaAsia-PacificDeclined to stand for a third election.[17]
In the process of replacing Hammarskjöld, the developing world insisted on a non-European and non-American Secretary-General. U Thant was nominated. However, due to opposition from the French (Thant had chaired a committee on Algerian independence) and the Arabs (Burma supported Israel), Thant was only appointed for the remainder of Hammarskjöld's term. He was the first Asian Secretary-General. The following year, on 30 November, Thant was unanimously re-elected to a new term ending on 3 November 1966. He was re-elected on 2 December 1966, finally for a full 5-year term, ending on 31 December 1971. Thant did not seek a third election.[14]
Bundesarchiv Bild 183-M0921-014, Beglaubigungsschreiben DDR-Vertreter in UNO new.pngKurt Waldheim
Kurt Waldheim Signature.svg
1 January 1972 –
31 December 1981
 AustriaWestern European & OthersChina vetoed his third term.[18]
Waldheim launched a discreet but effective campaign to become the Secretary-General. Despite initial vetoes from China and the United Kingdom, in the third round, Waldheim was selected to become the new Secretary-General. In 1976, China initially blocked Waldheim's re-election, but it relented on the second ballot. In 1981, Waldheim's re-election for a third term was blocked by China, which vetoed his selection through 15 rounds. From 1986 to 1992, Waldheim served as President of Austria, making him the first head of state to rise to the position of Secretary-General of the United Nations[19]. In 1985, it was revealed that a post–World War II UN War Crimes Commission had labeled Waldheim as a suspected war criminal – based on his involvement with the army of Nazi Germany. The files had been stored in the UN archive.[14]
Javier Pérez de Cuéllar (1982).jpgJavier Pérez de Cuéllar
(born 1920)
Javier Pérez de Cuéllar (firma).jpg
1 January 1982 –
31 December 1991
 PeruLatin American & CaribbeanDid not stand for a third term.[20]
Pérez de Cuéllar was selected after a five-week deadlock between the re-election of Waldheim and China's candidate, Salim Ahmed Salim of Tanzania. Pérez de Cuéllar, a Peruvian diplomat who a decade earlier had served as President of the UN Security Council during his time as Peruvian Ambassador to the UN, was a compromise candidate, and became the first and thus far only Secretary-General from the Americas. He was re-elected unanimously in 1986.[14]
Boutros Boutros-Ghali (1980).jpgBoutros Boutros-Ghali
Signature of Boutros Boutros-Ghali.svg
1 January 1992 –
31 December 1996
 EgyptAfricanThe United States vetoed his second term.[21]
The 102-member Non-Aligned Movement insisted that the next Secretary-General come from Africa. With a majority in the General Assembly and the support of China, the Non-Aligned Movement had the votes necessary to block any unfavourable candidate. The Security Council conducted five anonymous straw polls—a first for the council—and Boutros-Ghali emerged with 11 votes on the fifth round. In 1996, the United States vetoed the re-appointment of Boutros-Ghali, claiming he had failed in implementing necessary reforms to the UN.[14]
Kofi Annan Portrait.JPGKofi Annan
(born 1938)
Kofi Annan signature.svg
1 January 1997 –
31 December 2006
 GhanaAfricanRetired after two full terms.[22]
On 13 December 1996, the Security Council recommended Annan.[23][24] He was confirmed four days later by the vote of the General Assembly.[25] He started his second term as Secretary-General on 1 January 2002.
Ban Ki-Moon Davos 2011 Cropped.jpgBan Ki-moon
(born 1944)
Ban Ki Moon Signature.svg
1 January 2007 –
31 December 2016
 South KoreaAsia-PacificRetired after two full terms.[26]
Ban became the first East Asian to be selected as the Secretary-General and the second Asian overall after U Thant. He was unanimously elected to a second term by the General Assembly on 21 June 2011. His second term began on 1 January 2012.[27] Prior to his selection, he was the Foreign Minister of South Korea from January 2004 to November 2006.
António Guterres November 2016.jpgAntónio Guterres
(born 1949)
Assinatura António Guterres.svg
1 January 2017 –
 PortugalWestern European & Others
Guterres is the second former head of government to become Secretary-General, and the first Secretary-General born after the establishment of the United Nations. He was Prime Minister of Portugal from 1995 to 2002. He has also been President of Socialist International (1999–2005) and United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (2005–2015).